Museum-Female Presidential Candidates

Before  Hillary, there was Victoria Woodhull, nee Claflin.   

Victoria  was the first woman to run for the office of President of the United States in 1872.  




In a speech delivered on 15 November 1867, Douglass said "A man's rights rest in three boxes. The ballot box, jury box and the cartridge box. Let no man be kept from the ballot box because of his color. Let no woman be kept from the ballot box because of her sex".[6] In Douglass's autobiography the Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, published in 1892, he described his conviction that a freedman should become more than just a freedman, and should become a citizen. He repeated that "the liberties of the American people were dependent upon the ballot-box, the jury-box, and the cartridge-box; that without these no class of people could live and flourish in this country. (Wikipedia)

Frederick  Douglass gave this speech on November 14 and 15 1867 in Williamsport Pa at the Doebler House 

John F. Nice.  1867-1883 Photographer in Williamsport.  Name on the back of the ivorytype

According to the label on the back of this ivorytype, the image was made by Nice in Williamsport, PA.  One could reasonably assume that since Douglass and Nice were in Williamsport in 1867 the Clafin  sisters, Victoria and Tennessee) were there to hear The Douglass speech and had their photograph taken at that time.


Victoria Claflin Woodhull, later Victoria Woodhull Martin (September 23, 1838 – June 9, 1927), was an American leader of the women's suffrage movement. In 1872, she ran for President of the United States. While many historians and authors agree that Woodhull was the first woman to run for President of the United States, some have questioned that priority given issues with the legality of her run. They disagree with classifying it as a true candidacy because she was younger than the constitutionally mandated age of 35. (Woodhull's 35th birthday was in September 1873, seven months after the March inauguration). However, election coverage by contemporary newspapers does not suggest age was a significant issue; this may, however, be due to the fact that no one took the candidacy seriously.

An activist for women's rights and labor reforms, Woodhull was also an advocate of "free love", by which she meant the freedom to marry, divorce and bear children without social restriction or government interference.[2] "They cannot roll back the rising tide of reform," she often said. "The world moves."

Woodhull twice went from rags to riches, her first fortune being made on the road as a magnetic healer[4] before she joined the spiritualist movement in the 1870s. Authorship of many of her articles is disputed (many of her speeches on these topics were collaborations between Woodhull, her backers, and her second husband, Colonel James Blood. However, despite her ethical problems, her role as a representative of these movements was powerful. Together with her sister, Tennessee Claflin, she was the first woman to operate a brokerage firm on Wall Street, making a second, and more reputable fortune. They were among the first women to found a newspaper in the United States, Woodhull & Claflin's Weekly, which began publication in 1870.

Woodhull was politically active in the early 1870s, when she was nominated as the first woman candidate for the United States presidency. Woodhull was the candidate in 1872 from the Equal Rights Party, supporting women's suffrage and equal rights; her running mate was black abolitionist leader Frederick Douglass. A check on her activities occurred when she was arrested on obscenity charges a few days before the election. Her paper had published an account of the alleged adulterous affair between the prominent minister Henry Ward Beecher and Elizabeth Richards Tilton which had rather more detail than was considered proper at the time. However, it all added to the sensational coverage of her candidacy.(WIKIPEDIA)


Year Name Party Running mate Votes Ballot access

1872 Victoria Woodhull Equal Rights Party Frederick Douglass [38] 0 states

1884 Belva Ann Lockwood National Equal Rights Party Marietta Stow[39] 4,149 6 states [40]

1888 Belva Ann Lockwood National Equal Rights Party First: Alfred Love Second: Charles Stuart Wells[41] [42]

1940 Gracie Allen Surprise Party N.A. 42,000

1952 Ellen Linea W. Jensen Washington Peace Party

               Mary Kennery[43] American Party

               Agnes Waters American Woman's Party

1968 Charlene Mitchell Communist Party Michael Zagarell 1,075 2 states [44]

1972 Linda Jenness Socialist Workers Party Andrew Pulley 83,380[19] 25 states

                Evelyn Reed Socialist Workers Party Andrew Pulley 13,878

1976 Margaret Wright People's Party Benjamin Spock 49,024

1980 Ellen McCormack Right to Life Party Carroll Driscoll 32,327

                Maureen Smith Peace and Freedom Party Elizabeth Cervantes Barron 18,116

               Deirdre Griswold Workers World Party Gavrielle Holmes.[45] 13,300

1984 Sonia Johnson Citizens Party Richard Walton 72,200 19 states [46]

               Gavrielle Holmes[47] Workers World Party Gloria La Riva[48] 2,656[49] 2 states

1988 Lenora Fulani New Alliance Party Joyce Dattner 217,219 50 states

                Willa Kenoyer Socialist Party, Liberty Union Party Ron Ehrenreich 3,928

1992 Lenora Fulani New Alliance Party Maria Elizabeth Muñoz 73,714

               Helen Halyard Socialist Equality Party Fred Mazelis 3,050

               Isabell Masters Looking Back Party Walter Masters 327

               Gloria La Riva Workers World Party Larry Holmes 181

1996 Monica Moorehead Workers World Party Gloria La Riva 29,083

                Marsha Feinland Peace and Freedom Party Kate McClatchy 25,332

                Mary Cal Hollis Socialist Party, Liberty Union Party Eric Chester 4,766

                Diane Beall Templin The American Party Gary Van Horn 1,847

                 Isabell Masters Looking Back Party Shirley Jean Masters 752

2000 Monica Moorehead Workers World Party Gloria La Riva 4,795

                Cathy Gordon Brown Independent Sabrina R. Allen 1,606

2004 Diane Beall Templin The American Party Albert B. "Al" Moore (lost ballot status)

2008 Cynthia McKinney Green Party Rosa Clemente 161,797 32 states

                 Gloria La Riva Party for Socialism and Liberation Eugene Puryear[50] 7,427

                 Diane Beall Templin The American Party Linda Patterson (lost ballot status)

2012 Jill Stein Green Party Cheri Honkala 468,907 36 states

               Roseanne Barr Peace and Freedom Party Cindy Sheehan 67,326

               Peta Lindsay Party for Socialism and Liberation Yari Osorio 9,388

2016 Hillary Clinton Democratic Party Tim Kaine 65,853,516 50 states

                Jill Stein Green Party Ajamu Baraka 1,457,044 47 states

               Gloria La Riva Peace and Freedom Party[51] Dennis Banks 43,742 8 states[52]

                Alyson Kennedy Socialist Workers Party Osborne Hart 10,348 7 states[53]

                Monica Moorehead Workers World Party Lamont Lilly 3,722

                Lynn S. Kahn Independent Kathleen Monahan 5,610

                Khadijah Jacob-Fambro Revolutionary Party Milton Fambro 748 (WIKIPEDIA)

2020        Tulsi Gabbard

                 Kirsten Gillibrandt

                 Kamala Harris

                 Amy Klobuchar

                 Elizabeth Warren

                  Marianne Williamson